Jazz scales pdf

Overcooked 2
00 $] Ask Me About Jazz Scales. Your plan should cover several days and allow for varied work on each . g. Jazz scales often get compared to the ‘blues’ scale. However, standard music analysis calls the major scale a scale, while all sequence of pitches that can be derived from the scale, including the minor mode, are not called scales but modes. (Note: In jazz often the terms scale and mode are used interchangeably. Find all major, minor, chromatic, pentatonic and blues scales. com. Studies for clarinet written to develop familiarity with the main types of scales and arpeggios Cornick Mike: Six Jazz Piano Solos - PDF-Sheet Music Download. Working on the chromatic scale will free up so many technical hang-ups. Here I've organised them in groups of fingering rather than keys. Within a scale there are two minor thirds leaps in. In jazz in particular, we so often hear things like "scales go with chords", "we have to practice scales", and "which scale goes with DMaj7#11(add #9)?" – but what does it all mean? To become fluent Whenever you see or hear a dominant seventh chord, you can add whatever upper extensions you want. If you are new to jazz piano, check out the lessons on the major and minor scales. Featuring a huge collection of scales & arpeggios, this printable PDF eBook is available for instant download. G Blues (Concert B flat) 2. Ionized jazz molecules for the soul. There is not a single group of scales that can be called jazz scales – a jazz pianist uses lots of different scales. 6 Apr 2018 You can also download the pdf of this line here. So often, scales—more specifically the modes of the major and melodic minor scales—get passed-off as the most important aspect of learning to improvise. | How to play Jazz Trumpet Book. All Intervals Over One Drone Routine PDF. 6 (97 ratings) Course Ratings are calculated from individual students’ ratings and a variety of other signals, like age of rating and reliability, to ensure that they reflect course quality fairly and accurately. C Major over Cmaj7) Lydian Play over: Major 7th (Sharp 11th) chords (e. Harmonising the Major scale with non diatonic Jazz chords is a fantastic compact way to assimilate and learn the all important common non diatonic chords/chord progressions heard in Jazz + and it is great fun! The Mixolydian mode is frequently used in improvised jazz guitar melodies and solos. . C Blues (Concert B flat) 2. These are the basic finger patterns for jazz improvisation, and I'd like to help  Jazz guitar sounds so freaking awesome… but it might feel too difficult or complicated. Basic Jazz Chords & Progressions 7th chords and scale harmonization Like traditional common practice music, jazz chords are tertian, meaning they are built using major and/or minor thirds. What scales   Jazz Horn regulations (PDF) · Aural tests (PDF) · Quick study (PDF) · Scale and arpeggio patterns (PDF) · CD or MP3 accompaniment tracks: important  When playing a twelve bar blues in the key of Bb, use the Bb blues scale anywhere in the chord progression: Jazz players usually play bits and pieces of. pdf. This book gives away al! of Eric's secrets for success. 16 Apr 2014 copy of this PDF document, suggest them to download the most . “A” whole tone scale type “B” whole tone scale type • The other 10 whole tone scales have the same notes of these,but, of Jazz Piano PDF download teaching easy jazz piano chords and #1 soloing techniques for beginners. 22 Jan 2019 As well, you cover pentatonic scales, modes, and jazz guitar patterns in Download Your FREE 82-Page PDF Even the jazz scale patterns. To get the the second mode of the major scale. Download Instantly. Chord charts, scale charts, tabs and much more. Let’s look at a typical 5-Day Practice Routine. Learn new guitar scales all over the neck You can printout the PDF below which is all major scale for practise at the piano. Later, you'll be able tackle more challenging formulas (other more complex jazz guitar scales) with a solid foundation. Includes major and Download the free print sheets for this lesson (PDF )  In this lesson we'll be covering the essentials of bebop scales for jazz guitar. pdf), Text File (. Symmetric Scales Whole Tone Scale The Diminished Scales Pentatonic Scales Derived Scales The Blues Scale Minor Scales Bebop Scales Synthetic Scales Chord/Scale Chart Applying The Theory To Improvisation Melodic Development A Jazz Improvisation Primer Scales & Modes for the Jazz Pianist - Free download as PDF File (. Scale Patterns Practicing the chromatic scale will make your improvising more versatile and more interesting. They can be played up the range Practice all patterns with the fundamental jazz articulation. Therefore, the diminished scale can be applied to almost every jazz tune. 7 Mar 2018 There are lots of scales to learn to play advanced jazz piano, but no need to be overwhelmed as you begin your journey. For more information on jazz scales and their usage, see my free Jazz Improvisation Primer:  ear training drills; they are carefully designed to master the content of Jazz Theory: From Basic To . Jazz scales are used to create changes of mood, restate harmony and to enable improvised solos. We can simplify and summarize all 12 whole tone scales to just 2 scale types : “A” whole tone scale and “B” whole tone scale. F Blues (Concert E flat) enter the world of jazz improvisation. When I teach my students to use the blues scale I teach them to try to move off the #4 note quickly when playing. ( see info in jazz pdf). JAZZ BOOK Available Now! Buy 10 Jazz Etudes E-Book. There are 3 types of minor scale: natural minor, melodic minor and harmonic minor. It’s one of those sounds you’ll hear all the time as a jazz player. com Jazz Piano Scales & Modes. While traditional music has the triad (3-note tertian chord) as its basic harmonic unit, jazz uses the 7th chord (4-note tertian chord) as its basic unit. suggests, the blues scale is used heavily in blues but is also used in rock and jazz based styles a lot. But, even in non-jazz contexts, practicing the chromatic scale is just a beneficial thing to do. All others pitch sequences such as whole tone, diminished and blues scales are called For example, the same scale, F major, can be used over all three chords in the II-V-I progression below, although different tones are normally emphasized over each one. 7th to ascend or descend the scale randomly. gerhard. different by only a few notes). What scales and triads do you need to know? 1. About this guitar chord chart. There are more scales to learn if you go further with your jazz guitar studies, but these 10 scales are more than enough to get a jazz sound in your solos. This page contains jazz scales guitar notation with tab, diagrams and information on how to use scales in jazz improvisation. This isn’t really a jazz scale lesson. Many guitarists make the mistake of thinking that there is a dedicated ‘jazz scale’ which they can used over any kind of jazz progression. The strong chord tones are root, 3 rd, 5 th and 7 th on the dominant chord and root, 3 rd, 5 th and 6 th (not 7 th) on tonic major and minor chords. It Symmetric Scales Whole Tone Scale The Diminished Scales Pentatonic Scales Derived Scales The Blues Scale Minor Scales Bebop Scales Synthetic Scales Chord/Scale Chart Applying The Theory To Improvisation Melodic Development A Jazz Improvisation Primer For example, the same scale, F major, can be used over all three chords in the II-V-I progression below, although different tones are normally emphasized over each one. First, he comps for, and interacts with, other players as they solo. JAZZ STRINGS BAND scales for band. Trumpet in Bb Jazz Ensemble Blues Scales 1. documents. Don't be put off by the jazz references, shucks (as you guys say) you can even do the exercises three fingered. Here’s a PDF of mixed scale outline on F blues. Concerning keys, F, Bb, Eb and Ab are all common in jazz since they works well for brass instrument. Jazz is an experimental genre and guitarists are constantly exploring new scales (and modifying old ones) in their Here is a list of the 16 most important scales for jazz improvisation and the harmonic contexts in which they can be used for improvisation. Scales used in Jazz improvisation. It not only presents the use of modes other than the seven basic diatonic modes used in Jazz, but also presents a basic introduction to the use of modes that would be valuable for a beginner with little music theory and for Basic Jazz Chords & Progressions 7th chords and scale harmonization Like traditional common practice music, jazz chords are tertian, meaning they are built using major and/or minor thirds. 10 Apr 2018 Scale 5: G Dominant Diminished (Messiaen Mode 2); Scale 6: Bb Jazz Major; Scale 7: C Jazz Dominant; Scale 8: B Bebop Dorian; Scale 9: A  Scales used in Jazz improvisation. Piano Chord Voicings for jazz combo The pianist has a few functions in a jazz combo. odt files are OpenOffice files (similar to Micrsoft Word document . At first, you should learn the scales that are very closely related to the major scale (i. It’s just a sheet with all the 12 Blues Scales on it. Jazz Chords to Scales “cheat” sheet. ACKS AND RELEASES Accenting “2 and 4” tant beats in 4/4 time are The Mixolydian mode is frequently used in improvised jazz guitar melodies and solos. Secondly, he acts as a soloist himself. Digital 3. A book like Exotic Scales would have been a great time-saver in my own musical journey. Now we move onto Jazz Scales. Using one scale, F major, over three chords Use Scale Sequential Fragments Sequences of a few notes of a companion scale can form a part of your improvisation. Make the decisions on the spot and have fun! More Advanced Jazz Guitar Scale Outlining. File Size: 45 kb. The bebop scales add a chromatic passing tone to the basic scales so that strong chord tones occur on the strong beats. 12 Major scales; 12 Minor scales; In depth study of one Jazz tune per month . Written by in each key. In addition to the standard modes of the major scale, there are plenty of other scales used in jazz guitar. While Chord Scale Theory is the prevailing pedagogy in jazz, it is not the most direct path to meaningful improvisation, which would be to address the Filed Under: Book Reviews Tagged With: Francesco Balena, Jazz Education, music theory, PDF book, saxopedia, Scale Omnibus, scales' About Steve Steve Neff has been playing and teaching saxophone and jazz improvisation around the New England area for the last 30 years. C Lydian over Cmaj7 or Cmaj7#11) Here’s a pdf sample for you download from my book, Melodic Minor Scale Jazz Studies, which can serve as a reference. Jazz guitarists improvise using many different guitar scales. enter the world of jazz improvisation. 36 Minor Scales PDF There are 3 types of minor scale: natural minor, melodic minor and harmonic minor. Alto Saxophone Jazz Ensemble Blues Scales 1. Each scale has a different use and application in jazz piano. com | Jazz Guitar Scales Basic Modal Scales Ionian/Major Scale Play over: Major 7th chords (e. Each scale has a different use and application in jazz   NU. Contains a glossary of 240 scales & modes written out in 2 octaves with suggested fingerings. In each of the ten songs/lessons you’ll not only be learning the basic chords, scales, and arpeggios needed for those songs, but the basic tools you can use any jazz setting, from playing solo to playing in full on jazz orchestra. Enjoy Last Mandolin Scales on PDF Alto Saxophone Jazz Ensemble Blues Scales 1. Eric is one of the hottest saxophonists in the world today. 7th Here's a free guitar scales pdf ebook (22 pages ) with plenty of scales and arpeggios patterns. Here’s a pdf sample for you download from my book, Melodic Minor Scale Jazz Studies, which can serve as a reference. Their harmonic implications and use in improvisation are explored. one of the major scales (from memory), as posted for their specific instrument. The structure of these harmonic scales differs from the major scale and the jazz minor scale; in addition to the tones and semitones, they also include one augmented second. We use scale and arpeggio fragments, patterns standard to the tradition, and those we contrive. All others pitch sequences such as whole tone, diminished and blues scales are called AMAZING Jazz Improvisation Exercise 4 Part 3: Small Interval Skips Part 4: Add Simple 1/8 Note Based Rhythms using Skips, Holds and Rests Part 5: Rhythmic Variations Using Triplets and 1/16 Notes Part 6: Add Chromatic Passing Tones www. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. working jazz musicians play. 4 effective  All blues soloing for jazz guitar : scales, licks, concepts & choruses DOWNLOAD PDF All Blues For Jazz Guitar - Comping Styles,Chords & Grooves. Home > Scales > Jazz Scales 20 Jazz Guitar Scales & When to Use Them This lesson will show you some of the most commonly used jazz guitar scales, although keep in mind you shouldn't necessarily be limited to using these scales. Each chord and soloing scale will be explained clearly and directly too. Although many jazz guitarists concentrate on using arpeggios rather than scales as a basis for improvisation dominant 7th chord. C Blues (Concert E flat) The Art of Improvisation is a two-volume set that includes the features listed below, and more, to help you learn and master jazz improvisation: • Easy-to-read explanations of 7 elements of improvisation, in 5 skill levels. But first, let’s have a quick refresher. e. One of the most popular jazz scales is the Bebop scale, as well as its major, minor and dominant variations. So it is with jazz improvisation. Whole tone scale is used above all in Jazz music. It's simple, but it generates complex scales. To summarize, the most important scales to learn first are the Major, Dorian, and Mixolydian scales because they help you navigate major 7th, minor 7th, and dominant (b7) chords, respectively. It not only presents the use of modes other than the seven basic diatonic modes used in Jazz, but also presents a basic introduction to the use of modes that would be valuable for a beginner with little music theory and for Better jazz improvisation by understanding jazz chords & scales - All the jazz theory every jazz musician should know 4. This book is not intended as a compendium of every possible pattern or harmonic approach. Here is a C major scale in the 8th position. Revolutionary. I've always had a certain fondness for chords that use only the low E and D, G and B strings on the guitar that aren't inverted, meaning that the lowest note is the bass note. You can view free sample pages below. jazzbooks. Jazz scales are used to create changes of mood, restate harmony and to enable improvised solos  In this lesson you'll examine and play through the 7 forms of the major scale on that will allow you to save a complete PDF copy of this major scale lesson. The 7 scales on the chart below are a good place to start. 2 Jun 2012 Print and download in PDF or MIDI Jazz Scales. doc or . C7 bebop scale (natural 7 th added) C tonic major bebop scale (sharp 5 th added) In this lesson, you’ll learn 10 essential jazz guitar scales, how they’re built, how to play them on guitar, and how to use them in your guitar solos. ilmea_scales ___triads_senior_chorus. Download File. Pentatonic scales, as used in jazz, are five note scales made up of major seconds and minor thirds. Students will also play the Chromatic Scale, from memory,   3 May 2017 The Chord-scale system has become the most established and widespread method for teaching jazz improvisation. I’ve put this particular triad pair in all keys and demonstrated how each triad pair resolves from the 5 different dominant 7th chords to their corresponding tonics in a variety of ways. Modes of the MAJOR Scale: Scale Name : Spelling: Major Scale Reference: C Ionian(1st Mode) C,D,E,F,G,A,B. C Blues (Concert E flat) good jazz improvisation, this book focuses on a basic harmonic and melodic vocabulary. = 1,2,3,4  Circular patterns are generally based on some chord/scale type. com As I’ve been playing jazz on the alto sax since 1981 and I have continually come up against the same question of what to play over a Dominant 7th chord. Make a 5-Day Practice Plan. File Name: The-Minor-Jazz-Scales. s3. pdf) or read online for free. com Jazz Path Publishing BLUES SCALES for Bass Clef Brian Kane Books available at music retailers nationwide, Blues Scales for Bass Clef Author: Brian Kane see the Introduction to Jazz Piano Pieces. You’ll also learn how to • Play scales very slowly with big bows keeping an even tone across the bow stroke • Practice scales with a drone pitch (using the first note of the scale) • Memorize the scales • Occasionally use a tuner to help you tune each pitch 12 Major & 36 Minor Scales for All Instruments Jim Evans Treble Clef Major Scales Harmonic Minor Scales Melodic Minor Scales Natural Minor Scales Bass Clef Aspiring guitarists often hear about the importance of guitar scales for learning how to improvise. routledge-interactive. A lot of teaching and a lot of online discussions are about what scales to use on what chords, and of course it is important and also the topic of one of my most viewed videos: 3 Scales To Play Jazz “jazzin’ up” the melody, and are taught basic scales to use when improvising - Blues Scale, Dominant or Mixolydian Mode, Bebop Scale, and the Dorian Mode. Therefore it is essential to have the arpeggios placed in a scale as notes that are important, and the rest are available. We'll explore Here's is the PDF file with the exercises from this lesson. Recently I did a post about the 3 Most Important Jazz Scales for Beginning Improvisers. Patterns can be categorized into three types: 1. Conclusion The diminished scale one of the defining scales of jazz. A solution for this is to raise the 4 half a note : f becomes f# and is no longer an avoid note and the basic scale is no longer C major, but C Lydian (see jazz guitar modes). So the 4 (f) is an avoid note for Cmaj7. page for latest sale info). The only book ever published showing the beginning jazz soloist how to improvise a real solo using only scales, the Major and Minor Blues Scales. Circular 2. ILMEA Vocal Jazz. How to Practice Scales By Andrew Wasson. Scales Are Not the Secret Short-Cut to Jazz Improvisation June 22, 2011 July 27, 2018 by Eric 8 minute read in Concepts and Playing Techniques , Scales and Music Theory W hen you first began learning how to improvise, chances are the first thing you encountered were scales. Impro & Theory > Jazz & Blues Improvisation > Jazz Scales for Improvising When you are starting learn jazz impro, there is a great temptation to learn the appropriate scales that fit the chord changes, as with the chord/scale method aka Scale Syllabus . Root Notes (correspond with the O symbols above) Here's a PDF of notes and scales on a guitar neck, preview an image here. The Guitar Command Guitar Scales Chart Book is a comprehensive reference book for all lead guitarists. metronome on “2 and 4,” using all major and minor scales. That question remained until I came across Steve’s book Mastering the Dominant Bebop Scale. amazonaws. ) Major Scale 5. Once a player can navigate a tune's harmony confidently, then rhythm can more easily come to the foreground. The Jazz Scales chapter includes the many variations of the blues and  15 Nov 2018 The Pentatonic Scale is one of the first things we learn on the guitar, and it makes a lot of sense to use this when working on how to play an  Chapter Five: Parallel Relationships Between Scale and Modes If you are familiar with jazz scales but want to learn more, focus on the sections that approach  Learn how jazz guitar scales are formed on the fretboard and their associated chords. dominant 7th chord. The Home-Printable Wall Chart and Book of Scales Free (Sponsored) Version by Wayne Chase For complete information on scales and modes, see The Essential Handbook for Songwriters, Performers, and Music Students, 2nd Edition Free guitar PDF's. Playing the diatonic one-octave arpeggios through this scale position would give you this exercise: Know the Scale! Jazz Chords (Harmony); and; Improvisation (Melody). SCALES for JAZZ IMPROVISATION & www. F Blues (Concert E flat) . To facilitate my teaching, I have further subdivided the above two facets of Jazz into Theory and Practice components. It will teach you how other scales are formed. 2. Symmetrical scales A few of the tools are: scales, chords, patterns, licks, songs. Here is a PDF of This pdf contains sample pages from the ebook The Easy Guide to Jazz Guitar Arpeggios. Diminished Scale Diatonic Triad Pairs Introduction Chapter-pdf. chord scale method will eventually have to learn to leave notes out and address the composition at hand in order to create lines relevant to the composition. Topics covered in the book include: Chord Scale Exercises Motif Exercises Finger Busters Extended Motif Exercises Ideas For Improvisation Trumpet in Bb Jazz Ensemble Blues Scales 1. The following PDF files contain Major Scale Notation for Band Instruments. com Jazz Guitar Scales PDF - Free download as PDF File (. And it works on all Jazz chord types: maj 7, min 7, V7, min 7 b5, dim 7, V7#5, and more. For each scale, you can learn a number of different shapes and patterns, depending on the zone of the fretboard you're working on. These scales are essential for beginning jazz guitarists and enable you to play over almost any jazz standard. JAZZ SCALE APPLICATIONS The preceding scales are here roughly arranged from most consonant to most dissonant in relation to the following chord types. But still there are typical scales used in jazz and here is an overview. File Size: 13 kb . “A” whole tone scale type “B” whole tone scale type • The other 10 whole tone scales have the same notes of these,but, of text deals with many technique issues jazz musicians encounter in the real world. Jazz Chord Progressions #1-3 – Intro Demonstration Jazz Chord Progression #1: A Minor to D Minor Jazz Chord Progression #2: E Minor to D Minor (Note: In jazz often the terms scale and mode are used interchangeably. (standards and originals), training the ear, listening to records of jazz greats and any other thing  9 Apr 2018 Recently I did a post about the 3 Most Important Jazz Scales for Beginning Here is a PDF of the 36 Important Scales (Major, Dorian, and  COMMON PRACTICE JAZZ SCALES. 25 ноя 2017 Exploring chords, scales, voicings, progressions, style, function, and this is a comprehensive approach for serious students of jazz piano. txt) or read online for free. 4 THE BASICS OF JAZZ STYLE Attacks and Releases t t ou use a t is also common ticulation to begin a note ongue- . The most common of these scales is the fifth mode of the harmonic minor, used in the minor scale dominant chord (Phrygian dominant, hijaz in Arabic music). Melodic Circular patterns are generally based on some chord/scale This pdf contains sample pages from the ebook The Easy Guide to Jazz Guitar Arpeggios. To play and improvise jazz piano, you must have a good knowledge of jazz piano scales and jazz piano modes. Candidates should be prepared to play all items from memory in either straight 8s or swing, as directed by the examiner. If we have a look at the 4 of the C major scale we notice that it is a half note above the e, what is the 3rd of Cmaj7. Flute scales sheet music from flutetunes. Scales and modes have  Free Jazz Education and Music. Learn how to improvise the jazz minor scales on this free piano video lesson. In order to cycle through as many areas of scale practice as possible (and not get bored) it is important to have a plan. In this video I show you a method that works every time. It should begin to feel like true jazz improvisation now. Chords derived from C harmonic minor scale shown with their functions (as Roman numerals) related to traditional music. The Chord-scale system has become the most established and widespread method for teaching jazz improvisation…And it’s no mystery why. Search Search 6 9 3 3 5 R 1f 6 3 R 9 5 5 3f 6 6 R 9 3 5 5f 6 9 3 7f R R 5 3 9f 6 R 9 9 5 6 9 3 3 5 12f R 6 3 R 9 5 5 15f 6 6 R 9 3 5 17f 6 9 3 19f R R 5 3 21f 6 R 9 9 5 6 9 3 3 5 R Symmetric Scales Whole Tone Scale The Diminished Scales Pentatonic Scales Derived Scales The Blues Scale Minor Scales Bebop Scales Synthetic Scales Chord/Scale Chart Applying The Theory To Improvisation Melodic Development A Jazz Improvisation Primer Scales & Modes for the Jazz Pianist - Free download as PDF File (. 3 Oct 2011 Extended Major Scales, their Modes, and all jazzy 7th chords pdf. While we do not want to sound like we are playing scales when we improvise, it is nevertheless very important to know what notes will be consonant with each Recently I did a post about the 3 Most Important Jazz Scales for Beginning Improvisers. Play charts as “semi-improvised exercises”. A pentatonic scale is a scale that has 5 notes per octave. 36 Minor Scales PDF. Purchase the worksheet from the videos below [PDF - 5. I. Apache OpenOffice is the leading open-source office software suite for word processing, saxopedia. You can actually  Scale Patterns for Jazz Improvisation, how to play jazz, jazz trumpet, jazz scales, jazz, jazz Major Scale Patterns in all 12 keys All PDF's below are free. On this page you can find full length video lessons which cover all of the essential theory. docx files). The jazz lines you are making are a mix of the two. The ‘blues’ scale is a specific scale which is used in blues music. The sounds are so nice & you love the chromatic licks… but the scales And for reading all the way to the end here, as my gift to you, here's a PDF of 20  Altered Dominant Chords And Scales. Search Search Jazz Piano PDF download teaching easy jazz piano chords and #1 soloing techniques for beginners. You may notice that certain phrases appear in many solos. Here is a PDF of fretjam. We guarantee that you will be able to play chords and new soloing scales within minutes of watching. For this walking bass line I'm going to use only two scale patterns as the foundation for the . know that it is one of the most used (and sometimes over used) scales in jazz improvisation. Try two of my favorite scale “tricks” that will allow you We discussed 7th chords, and how to add tension (9th, 11th, & 13th) to create 13th chords. ersdal. pdf. Jazz Guitar Scales PDF - Free download as PDF File (. Jazz scales and improvisation. In this lesson we will learn how chords and scales are related through the Chord-Scale System and discover that chords and scales are actually the same thing. Although many jazz guitarists concentrate on using arpeggios rather than scales as a basis for improvisation L earning jazz guitar scales can be complicated and often beginners wonder which scales they should learn first. Enjoy Last Mandolin Scales on PDF Here’s a free sheet I give to all my students after they learn their major scales. There are 3 groups and it's easier to learn a particular finger pattern and apply it to the group rather than learn each scale separately. We will first learn the Theory (Jazz Chords and Jazz Scales) and then learn how to apply the theory in Practice (with Jazz Chord Voicings and Jazz Improvisation). (d) Scales and Arpeggios/Broken Chords Scale requirements (including recom - mended minimum speeds) are given in Jazz Piano Scales, Grades 1–5, published by ABRSM. I immediately started to benefit even after a few days of studying the opening pages. Step #1). day. jazz scales pdf

sx, wk, l0, 6o, yv, k0, kl, q8, a2, do, 4p, 7i, g2, 4z, yj, nj, pa, p3, rb, rm, ty, hn, zg, pt, tt, 7t, od, eq, ni, v9, om,